Release 5

This page is part of the FHIR Specification (v5.0.0: R5 - STU). This is the current published version. For a full list of available versions, see the Directory of published versions . Page versions: R5 R4B R4 R3

Work Group Patient Administration icon Standards Status: Informative

The Administrative module covers the base data that is then linked into the other modules for clinical content, finance/billing, workflow, etc. It is built on the FHIR technology platform modules.

Before any clinical data can be recorded, the basic information of the patient must be recorded, and then often the basis of the interaction (such as an encounter).

Resources that contain details of people and animals that are either receiving care, or are associated with these subjects. Many other resources refer back to these as either the subject of care, or are somehow involved in that patient's record.

PatientSubjectOfCare Client ResidentDemographics and other administrative information about an individual or animal receiving care or other health-related services.
RelatedPersonInformation about a person that is involved in a patient's health or the care for a patient, but who is not the target of healthcare, nor has a formal responsibility in the care process.
PersonDemographics and administrative information about a person independent of a specific health-related context.
GroupRepresents a defined collection of entities that may be discussed or acted upon collectively but which are not expected to act collectively, and are not formally or legally recognized; i.e. a collection of entities that isn't an Organization.
Image showing the relationship between resources representing people

Implementation Note: Patient linking should also be considered when evaluating searches with references to other resources. e.g. searching for a patient's conditions for a patient.
At present the specification does not define if the links should be also followed to include conditions that reference the linked patients too. We are currently seeking feedback on this.

Implementation Note: The Person resource may be used as a centralized register of people that may eventually be involved in healthcare, and could be used as the central core demographics register.
However, the fields/values in Person are duplicated in the other resources, and in many cases the Person resource will be hosted on external systems.

Most clinical activities occur grouped in some way. Long term care is typically covered by an EpisodeOfCare, whereas short term care is covered by encounters. Account associates the tracking of transactions back to a Patient (or other resource). Flag is just used to highlight a warning or other notification about a patient (or other resource)

EpisodeOfCareCase Program ProblemAn association between a patient and an organization / healthcare provider(s) during which time encounters may occur. The managing organization assumes a level of responsibility for the patient during this time.
EncounterVisitAn interaction between healthcare provider(s), and/or patient(s) for the purpose of providing healthcare service(s) or assessing the health status of patient(s).
AccountCost centerA financial tool for tracking value accrued for a particular purpose. In the healthcare field, used to track charges for a patient, cost centers, etc.
FlagBarriers to Care, AlertProspective warnings of potential issues when providing care to the patient.
Image showing the administration interactions

Implementation Note: Resources shown with a dotted box are described in other sections of the specification: Coverage and Claim are from the section on Finance.

Service Provider Directory resources are usually stored in the administration section of applications, and may even be synchronized from external systems.

OrganizationA formally or informally recognized grouping of people or organizations formed for the purpose of achieving some form of collective action. Includes companies, institutions, corporations, departments, community groups, healthcare practice groups, payer/insurer, etc.
LocationDetails and position information for a place where services are provided and resources and participants may be stored, found, contained, or accommodated.
PractitionerA person who is directly or indirectly involved in the provisioning of healthcare or related services.
PractitionerRoleA specific set of Roles/Locations/specialties/services that a practitioner may perform, or has performed at an organization during a period of time.
HealthcareServiceThe details of a healthcare service available at a location or in a catalog. In the case where there is a hierarchy of services (for example, Lab -> Pathology -> Wound Cultures), this can be represented using a set of linked HealthcareServices.
EndpointThe technical details of an endpoint that can be used for electronic services, such as for web services providing XDS.b, a REST endpoint for another FHIR server, or a s/Mime email address. This may include any security context information.
OrganizationAffiliationDefines an affiliation/assotiation/relationship between 2 distinct organizations, that is not a part-of relationship/sub-division relationship.
InsurancePlanDetails of a Health Insurance product/plan provided by an organization.
Image showing the provider directory resources

The Scheduling/Appointment resources permit the planning of encounters to occur and follow on with other clinical activities.

ScheduleAvailabilityA container for slots of time that may be available for booking appointments.
SlotA slot of time on a schedule that may be available for booking appointments.
AppointmentA booking of a healthcare event among patient(s), practitioner(s), related person(s) and/or device(s) for a specific date/time. This may result in one or more Encounter(s).
AppointmentResponseA reply to an appointment request for a patient and/or practitioner(s), such as a confirmation or rejection.
Image showing the scheduling interactions

When the scheduling resources need to identify the specific activity or service that is being scheduled, they may use either a HealthcareService or a coding to represent that activity.

Other assets are often registered in the administration system, and maintained as master files.

DeviceThis resource describes the properties (regulated, has real time clock, etc.), adminstrative (manufacturer name, model number, serial number, firmware, etc.), and type (knee replacement, blood pressure cuff, MRI, etc.) of a physical unit (these values do not change much within a given module, for example the serail number, manufacturer name, and model number). An actual unit may consist of several modules in a distinct hierarchy and these are represented by multiple Device resources and bound through the 'parent' element.
DeviceDefinitionThis is a specialized resource that defines the characteristics and capabilities of a device.
DeviceMetricDescribes a measurement, calculation or setting capability of a device. The DeviceMetric resource is derived from the ISO/IEEE 11073-10201 Domain Information Model standard, but is more widely applicable.
SubstanceA homogeneous material with a definite composition.

Resources that capture information about research studies, and who is participating in them.

Image showing the research resource relationships
ResearchStudyClinical TrialA scientific study of nature that sometimes includes processes involved in health and disease. For example, clinical trials are research studies that involve people. These studies may be related to new ways to screen, prevent, diagnose, and treat disease. They may also study certain outcomes and certain groups of people by looking at data collected in the past or future.
ResearchSubjectStudy SubjectA ResearchSubject is a participant or object which is the recipient of investigative activities in a research study.

Implementation Note: The episode and study properties are through standard extensions, and servers might not implement suitable search parameters on these extensions (still to be defined).
If an encounter has a mix of research and non research content, recommend creating 2 encounters in the system, however could derive that information Based on the presence of the extension on the obs/diagnosticreport/immunization etc. which then feeds to episodeofcare and onto account

Patient privacy is handled with security labels and tags in the Resource Meta property. This is the standard way in which that the FHIR specification provides this supporting information to a sub-system that implements it (which is not defined by FHIR).

One of the more common use cases is for marking a patient as being a celebrity.

Note that privacy considerations apply to Person, Practitioner and RelatedPerson records in addition to Patient's.

While Organization, Location, Device and other non-person-identifying records are generally subject to less stringent security precautions, such data must still be protected to avoid safety issues (e.g. someone maliciously changing the ingredients associated with a drug to cause/fail to cause alerts)

Devices can be linked to Patients. If this occurs, they must be protected as any other patient-linked element

For more general considerations, see the Security and Privacy module.

Administration Resources are cornerstone resources that are used by clinical and other domains of the FHIR Standard.

  • Managing a Master Record of a Patient and a Person (e.g. MPI)
    A Patient resource is used to describe patient demographic information and any updates to it. It can be used to communicate Patient information to other systems (e.g. other registries, clinical, ancillary and financial systems). Some systems distinguish the Patient Registry (or Client Registry) from the Person Registry. A Person resource is a base for the Person Registry system. The Patient/Person Management use case includes creation, update, as well as merge/unmerge and link/unlink scenarios.
  • Managing a Master Record of a Provider and Service Catalogue (e.g. Provider Registry, Service Directory)
    A Practitioner resource is a base resource for enabling the registry of individuals, related to providing health care services. Other resources, such as Organization, Location, HealthcareService, are creating a complete picture of where, how and by whom the care services are offered to a patient. The resources can be used for managing the master record or as a reference in clinical resources to inform about participants and places for various clinical resources.
  • Managing Other Administrative Records
    The Administration domain of the FHIR standard includes creation and update of Device and Substance records. Resources can be used for managing a master record or communicating its information to other systems.
  • Enabling Patient Profiles, Clinical Reporting and Connecting Clinical Records
    Administration Resources are referred to by almost all clinical resources. Querying systems, using the references to Administration Resources enables the creation of profiles and reports of various complexities.
  • Enabling Clinical Grouping and Financial Reporting
    Other use cases are included in the roadmap of resources, developed by the Patient Administration group. The roadmap section lists plans and updates of the current work.

The Patient Administration is currently working through resources that support:

  • Encounters and Scheduling (enhance maturity of encounters and further develop in/outpatient scheduling)
  • Service Provider Directory (in co-ordination with the Argonaut Provider Directory group)
  • Financial Management interactions (account/coverage, then charge item, which links administration to billing)

Many of the administrative resources are part of the core resources that most systems use first and have formed the basis for most people's first experiences with FHIR.
However this limited exposure has still to be proven in all contexts, such as veterinary, public health and clinical research.